The gun fires at 3,000 rounds per minute … The M61 Vulcan fires 20×102mmammunition. [4], The self-powered version, the GAU-4 (called M130 in Army service), is gas-operated, tapping gun gas from three of the six barrels to operate the gun gas driven mechanism. The firing rate is selectable at 4,000 or 6,000 rounds per minute. The PGU-28/B is a "low-drag" round designed to reduce in-flight drag and deceleration, and has a slightly increased muzzle velocity of 3,450 feet per second (1,050 m/s). The main types of combat rounds and their main characteristics are listed in the table below. After several mergers and acquisitions, it is currently produced by General Dynamics.[2]. Both pods contained 1,200 rounds of ammunition, with a loaded weight of 1,615 and 1,720 pounds (733 and 780 kg) respectively. Multi-purpose fuzeless round with an incendiary charge in the nose setting off the HE behind it with a slight delay to maximize lethality against aircraft. The gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system of flexible drive shafts. [2], Each of the cannon's six barrels fires once in turn during each revolution of the barrel cluster. When vehicle mounted the only limiting factor is the vehicle's safe carry weight, so commensurately larger ammo storage is available. The M61 Vulcan is the most expensive weapon in Wanted. [26] It was integrated into the newer F-4E Phantom II variants. Gun installation on West German Navy F-104, The Vulcan first entered aerial combat on 4 April 1965 when four North Vietnamese Air Force MiG-17s (J-5s)[11] attacked a force of 10 escorting North American F-100 Super Sabres (2 of which were assigned weather reconnaissance duties) and 48 Vulcan armed, but "bomb-laden F-105s", shooting down two Thunderchiefs. The original weapon was soon replaced by the M61A1, with a linkless feed system. These variants of the T45 were known as the T171 and T150 respectively and were first tested in 1952. The weapons weighed about 225 pounds each, while the carriage and limber together weighed about 405 pounds. The rifle-musket of the American Civil War had an effective range of perhaps 500 yards, meaning a reasonably skilled marksman could be reasonably sure of hitting a target at that range. In order to avoid using the few hundred rounds carried in a matter of a single trigger pull, a burst controller is generally used to limit the number of rounds fired at each trigger pull. During service in the Vietnam War, the pods proved to be relatively inaccurate: the pylon mounting was not rigid enough to prevent deflection when firing, and repeated use would misalign the pod on its pylon, making matters worse. The M61 Vulcan 20mm cannon, an electrically fired gatling gun, is tested on a US Air Force F-106 fighter-interceptor in October, 1969. The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet also uses this version. Range: Up to 5.5 kilometers (AA ceiling of 3.5 kilometers) | Up to 5.5 kilometers, 1.5 kilometers effective The main types of combat rounds and their main characteristics are listed in the table below. 35th TFS; The F4E was the first Phantom II to enter the war with an internal Vulcan gun. The rotor and housing have also been modified to remove any piece of metal not absolutely needed for operation and replaces some metal components with lighter weight materials. [14] PGU-28/B is a "low-drag" round designed to reduce in-flight drag and deceleration, and has a slightly increased muzzle velocity of 3,450 feet per second (1,050 m/s). It's a Heavy Weapon purchasable at the Gun Store. As C-RAM is not a naval application, I do not include these rounds in the table above. A 2000 USAF safety report noted 24 premature detonation mishaps (causing serious damage in many cases) in 12 years with the SAPHEI round, compared to only two such mishaps in the entire recorded history of the M56 round. The M163s uses a small, range-only radar, the AN/VPS-2, and an M61 optical lead-calculating sight. The new Air Force made a request for a new aircraft gun. When the NVAF MiG flew in front of him after making his pass, Maj. Tracy opened fire on him. fighters. This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 23:43. The M61 20mm "Vulcan". While captured German designs (principally the Mauser MG 213C) showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannon, the practical rate of fire of such a design was still limited by ammunition feed and barrel wear concerns. Combat experience in Vietnam showed that a gun could be more effective than guided missiles in many combat situations, and that an externally carried gun pod was less effective than an internal gun; the first generation of gun pods such as the SUU-16 were not oriented with the sights of the fighter. [citation needed], The subsequent SUU-23/A uses the GAU-4/A self-powered Vulcan, with an electric inertia starter to bring it up to speed. [citation needed]. It was also used to protect U.S. Air Force warplane airfields and U.S. Army helicopter airfields. In response to this requirement, the Armament Division of General Electric resurrected an old idea: the multi-barrel Gatling gun. No tracer or self-destruct. Given that both systems are from different origins, they haven’t been directly compared in the same settings and I haven’t seen any claimed accuracy figures for the GSh-301 so far, which I have (but don’t remember now) for the M61A1. This proved to cause serious aerodynamic drag at higher speeds, while speeds under 400 miles per hour (640 km/h) did not provide enough airflow for the maximum rate of fire. McCarthy Jr. pp. [17] It was integrated into the newer F-4E Phantom II variants. Alternately, the cannon has limited usefulness in a ground strafing role. [citation needed], A variant with much shorter barrels, designated the M195, was also developed for use on the M35 Armament Subsystem for use on the AH-1G Cobra helicopter. Nose fuzed round, no tracer. This proved to cause serious aerodynamic drag at higher speeds, while speeds under 400 miles per hour (640 km/h) did not provide enough airflow for maximum rate of fire. Excludes combination air-to-air missile/gun kills. While captured German designs (principally the Mauser MG 213C) showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannon, the practical rate of fire of such a desi… Effective Range: Several thousand yards : The 20 mm M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barreled, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style gun with an extremely high rate of fire. The F-4 was originally designed without a cannon as it was believed that missiles had made guns obsolete. The M61A2's lighter barrels allow a somewhat higher rate of fire up to 6,600 rounds per minute. [4] With multiple barrels, the rate of fire per barrel could be lower than a single-barrel revolver cannon while providing a greater overall rate of fire. The report estimated that the current PGU-28/B had a potential failure rate 80 times higher than USAF standards permit. The Vulcan first entered aerial combat on 4 April 1965 when four North Vietnamese Air Force MiG-17s (J-5s)[20] attacked a force of 10 escorting North American F-100 Super Sabres (2 of which were assigned weather reconnaissance duties) and 48 Vulcan-armed and "bomb-laden" F-105 Thunderchiefs, shooting down two of the latter. Lockheed Martin Armament Systems was later acquired by General Dynamics, who currently produce the M61 and its variants. It was fitted in a side-firing installation on the Fairchild AC-119 and some marks of the Lockheed AC-130 gunships, and was used in the tail turrets of both the Convair B-58 Hustler and Boeing B-52H Stratofortress bombers. [citation needed]. Donald Kilgus piloting an F-100 did receive an official probable kill with his four M39 20mm cannons during the engagement; however no other US pilot reported destroying any MiGs during the battle, leaving open the plausibility that at least 2 of the MiG-17s may have been downed by their own AA fire. This variant fed from ammunition boxes fitted to the landing skid and was developed to provide the AH-1 helicopter with a longer-range suppressive fire system before the adoption of the M97 Universal Turret mounting the M197 cannon. The M61 and its derivatives have been the principal cannon armament of United States military fixed-wing aircraft for sixty years. The improved pods were self-powered and properly synchronized to the fighters sights. While captured German designs (principally the Mauser MG 213C) showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannon, the practical rate of fire of such a design was still limited by ammunition feed and barrel wear concerns. At the end of World War II, the United States Army began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns. The 20 mm M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barreled, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style cannon with an extremely high rate of fire. 2 m effective radius to produce casualties to exposed personnel. [21][22][23], The first confirmed Vulcan gun kill occurred on 29 June 1966 when Major Fred Tracy, flying his F-105 Thunderchief with the 421st TFS, fired 200 rounds of 20mm into a MiG-17 that had just fired a 23mm shell through one side of his cockpit and which exited out the other side. The Eagle can be armed with combinations of four different air-to-air weapons: AIM-7F/M Sparrow missiles or AIM-120 AMRAAM advanced medium-range air-to-air missiles on its lower fuselage corners, AIM-9L/M Sidewinder or AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles on two pylons under the wings, and an internal 20 millimeter (0.79 in) M61 Vulcan Gatling gun in the right wing root. The heart of the M167 was a variant of the M61 Vulcan 20×102 mm rapid-fire rotary cannon. While the M61 Vulcan Gatling cannon is surely a hell-of-a-weapon, it should primarily be used against low-flying aircraft. These variants of the T45 were known as the T171 and T150 respectively, and were first tested in 1952. American fighters with .50 cal main armament, such as the P-51 and P-47, had to be close to the enemy in order to hit and damage enemy aircraft. The report estimated that the current PGU-28/B had a potential failure rate 80 times higher than USAF standards permit.[7]. At the end of World War II, the United States Army Air Forces began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns. Campbell & Hill p. 43/photo of his F-105 plate # 213, AIM-120B/C Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), Turkish military operation in Idlib Governorate, semi-armor-piercing high-explosive incendiary, https://www.gd-ots.com/armaments/aircraft-guns-gun-systems/m61a1/, https://archive.org/stream/The_Machine_Gun_V5/The_Machine_Gun_V5_djvu.txt, Archived copy of US Patent #502,185 by R.J. Gatling, for an electric-powered Gatling-gun, "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Maritime Strike Attack Aircraft", "GAU-4 20mm Vulcan M61A1/M61A2 20mm Automatic Gun", "PGU-27A/B TP/PGU-28A/B SAPHEI/ GU-30A/B TP-T", https://www.gd-ots.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/20mm-PGU-28-A-B-F-16.pdf, "Evolution of the M61 Vulcan Gatling Gun", "M61 A1 Vulcan - 20 mm Gatling gun system", AC-130H/U/J/W Spectre/Spooky II/Ghostrider/Stinger II, MC-130E/H/J/P Combat Talon I/Combat Talon II/Commando II/Combat Shadow, RC-135S/U/V/W COBRA BALL/Combat Sent/Rivet Joint, AGM-84H/K Standoff Land Attack Missile - Expanded Response, AGM-86B/C/D Air-Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM), AGM-88A/B/C High-speed Anti-radiation Missile (HARM), AGM-114 Hellfire Air-to-Surface Missile (ASM), AGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=M61_Vulcan&oldid=990306709, Weapons and ammunition introduced in 1959, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 6-barrel (progressive RH parabolic twist, 9 grooves), 3,450 feet per second (1,050 m/s) with PGU-28/B round, 165 gr (10.7 g; 0.38 oz) HE and 20 gr (1.3 g; 0.046 oz) incendiary. It can be bought in the Gun Shop for$50,000,000, the same price as the Atomic Armor and the Experimental Overdrive. [citation needed], A variant with much shorter barrels, designated the M195, was also developed for use on the M35 Armament Subsystem for use on the AH-1G Cobra helicopter. Tran Hanh, and the only survivor from the 4 MiGs reported that U.S. jets had pursued them and that F-105s had shot down 3 of his aircraft, killing Lieutenants Pham Giay, Le Minh Huan, and Tran Nguyen Nam. The original weapon was soon replaced by the M61A1, with a linkless feed system. 2 m (6.6 ft) effective radius to produce casualties to exposed personnel. Nose fuzed round, no tracer. The M134 Minigun is a six-barreled electrically powered rotary gun that was developed by General Electric. The rotary cannon was 20mm in caliber and fitted to a powered turret offering 360-degree traverse. In 1946, the Army issued General Electric a contract for "Project Vulcan", a six-barrel weapon capable of firing 7,200 rounds per minute (rpm). The firing rate is selectible at 4,000 spm or 6,000 spm. The gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system of flexible drive shafts. [16] Due to safety issues, it was limited to emergency wartime use in 2000.[17]. [citation needed], The first GE prototypes of the 0.60-inch (15 mm) caliber T45 were ground-fired in 1949; it achieved 2,500 rpm, which was increased to 4,000 rpm by 1950. Most aircraft installations are double-ended, because the ejection of empty cartridges can cause a foreign-object damage hazard for jet engines and because the retention of spent cases assists in maintaining the center of gravity of the aircraft. The effective anti-aircraft range is 1.2 km and ground targets can be engaged up to 2.2 km. Practically no powered rotary cannon is supplied with sufficient ammunition for a full minute of firing, due to its weight. Other aircraft include the Italian/Brazilian AMX International AMX (on Italian aircraft only), and the F-22 Raptor. An M61 Vulcan and the feed system for an F-18, on a stand. The idea of powering a Gatling gun from an external electric power source was not a novel idea at the end of the World War II, as Richard Jordan Gatling himself had done just that in 1893, with a patent he filed. Given enough time and anmo (lots of ammo), the Vulcan can chew through a MBT’s armor. Eventually, the 20×102 mm cartridge was determined to have the desired balance of projectile and explosive weight and muzzle velocity. The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet also uses this version. 35th TFS; The F4E was the first Phantom II to enter the war with an internal Vulcan gun. [8], In 1993, General Electric sold its aerospace division, including GE Armament Systems along with the design and production tooling for the M61 and GE's other rotary cannon, to Martin Marietta. [6] Although European designers were moving towards heavier 30 mm weapons for better hitting power, the U.S. initially concentrated on a powerful 0.60-inch (15 mm) cartridge designed for a pre-war anti-tank rifle, expecting that the cartridge's high muzzle velocity would be beneficial for improving hit ratios on high speed targets. This round was designed to address worries about falling projectiles from the system exploding on impact with the ground, potentially injuring friendly troops or civilians, damaging structures, or causing fires. Its limited effective range was 1.2 kilometers against aerial targets and up to 2.0 kilometers against ground targets. It was also adopted as standard in the "teen"-series air superiority fighters, the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. [39], "Jane's International Defense Review: IDR, Volume 36, Issues 1-6". During service in the Vietnam War the pods proved to be relatively inaccurate: the pylon mounting was not rigid enough to prevent deflection when firing, and repeated use would misalign the pod on its pylon, making matters worse. Both pods ejected empty cases and unfired rounds rather than retaining them. The primary use of the cannon is in the extremely short range (less than 2000 feet) air-to-air environment, where more sophistacated air-to-air missiles are ineffective. Tran Hanh, and the only survivor from the four MiGs, reported that U.S. jets had pursued them and that F-105s had shot down three of his aircraft, killing Lieutenants Pham Giay, Le Minh Huan, and Tran Nguyen Nam. A linkless ammunition feed system was developed for the upgraded M61A1, which subsequently became the standard cannon armament of U.S. [26], Two gun pod versions, the SUU-16/A (also designated M12 by the US Army) and improved SUU-23/A (US Army M25), were developed in the 1960s, often used on gunless versions of the F-4. "…features new lightweight gun system is the General Dynamics M61A2, which has a switchable firing rate of 4,000 or 6,000 shots per minute and a fully integrated linkless ammunition feed system", Toperczer (MiG-17/MiG-19 Units) pp. The concept resurfaced after World War II with the development of the Minigun and the M61 Vulcan. [1], The M61 was originally produced by General Electric, and after several mergers and acquisitions is currently produced by General Dynamics.[1]. Additionally, the radar was a range-only set incapable of finding targets. The strong arm of the M163 Vulcan air defense system was its installation of the M61 Vulcan cannon. [9], The self-powered version, the GAU-4 (called M130 in Army service), is gas-operated, tapping gun gas from three of the six barrels to operate the gun gas driven mechanism. Bursts of from two or three up to 40 or 50 can be selected. [citation needed], The M61 is also the basis of the US Navy Mk 15 Phalanx Close-in weapon system system and the M163 VADS Vulcan Air Defense System, using the M168 variant. The improved pods were self-powered and properly synchronized to the sights, while the USAF versions of the F-4 were hastily fitted with internal M61 cannon in a prominent fairing under the nose, well before the war ended (Navy Phantoms never received a cannon, continuing to rely on air-to-air missiles alone). [citation needed], Most aircraft versions of the M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed. The self-powered Vulcan weighs about 10 pounds (4.5 kg) more than its electric counterpart, but requires no external power source to operate, except for an electric, inertia starter to initiate gun rotation, allowing the first rounds to be chambered and fired. Practically no powered rotary cannon is supplied with sufficient ammunition for a full minute of firing, due to its weight (at 6,000 rpm, the projectiles alone would represent a mass of about 600 kg (1,300 lb) for one minute firing; and by including the brass shell, filling and primer the weight is slightly double that at 1,225 kg (2,701 lb). Both pods ejected empty cases and unfired rounds rather than retaining them. [24][25], The gun was installed in the Air Force's A-7D version of the LTV A-7 Corsair II where it replaced the earlier United States Navy A-7's Colt Mk 12 cannon and was adopted by the Navy on the A-7C and A-7E. The multiple barrels provide both a very high rate of fire—around 100 rounds per second—and contribute to prolonged weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. Multi-purpose fuzeless round with an incendiary charge in the nose setting off the HE behind it with a slight delay to maximize lethality against aircraft. The higher speeds of jet-powered fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire. [27][28][29][30], The Vulcan was later fitted into the weapons bay of some Convair F-106 Delta Dart and General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark models. By the early 1950s, the USAF decided that high velocity alone might not be sufficient to ensure target destruction and tested 20 mm and 27 mm alternatives based on the 0.60-inch (15 mm) caliber cartridge. A lesson of World War II air combat was that German, Italian, and Japanese fighters could attack American aircraft from long range with their cannon main armament. The original Gatling gun had fallen out of favor because of the need for an external power source to rotate the barrel assembly, but the new generation of turbojet-powered fighters offered sufficient electric power to operate the gun, and electric operation was more reliable than gas-operated reloading. Capt. It has the highest ammo capacity in the game game. [citation needed], The development of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter revealed that the T171 Vulcan (later redesignated M61) suffered problems with its linked ammunition, being prone to misfeed and presenting a foreign object damage (FOD) hazard with discarded links. It has been the principal cannon armament of … The higher speeds of jet-powered fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire. A variety of Armor-Piercing Incendiary (API), High Explosive Incendiary (HEI), and training rounds are available. ", Toperczer (MiG-17/MiG-19 Units) pp. [citation needed]. The M61 and its derivatives have been the principal cannon armament of United States military fixed … With much shorter barrels than the M61, the rate of fire for the M195 had to be drastically reduced for helicopter use to 750 shots per minute from the Vulcan's normal rate of fire of 4,000 to 6,000 shots per minute, but even at that the vibration of the weapon was tremendous. In response to this requirement, the Armament Division of General Electric resurrected an old idea: the multi-barrel Gatling gun. The system lacked radar guidance for inherent accuracy, particularly against a moving target, and only granted a ranging radar with manual targeting. Several thousand yards. McCarthy Jr. pp. The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute). The M61 20mm Vulcan is an externally powered, six-barrel, rotary-fire gun having a rate of fire of up to 7200 spm. Mean time between jams or failures is in excess of 10,000 rounds, making it an extremely reliable weapon. [3] [2], In 1946 the Army issued General Electric a contract for "Project Vulcan", a six-barrel weapon capable of firing 7,200 rounds per minute (rpm). Phalanx for C-RAM uses M246 HEI-TSD or M940 MPT-SD rounds. [3] In 1947, the Air Force became a separate branch of the military. Depending on the application, the feed system can be either single-ended (ejecting spent cases and unfired rounds) or double-ended (returning casings back to the magazine). Hydraulically operated, electrically fired, 3,450 feet per second (1,050 m/s) with PGU-28/B round. [citation needed] The success of the Vulcan Project and its subsequent progeny, the very-high-speed Gatling gun, has led to guns of the same configuration being referred to as "Vulcan cannon", which can sometimes confuse nomenclature on the subject. In order to avoid using the 600–1000 rounds carried by aircraft all at once, a burst controller is generally used to limit the number of rounds fired at each trigger pull. [38], The M61 is also the basis of the US Navy Mk 15 Phalanx Close-in weapon system and the M163 VADS Vulcan Air Defense System, using the M168 variant. A disadvantage of the M61 is that the bulk of the weapon, its feed system, and ammunition drum makes it difficult to fit it into a densely packed airframe. The system was designed to complement the M48 Chaparralmissile system. At the end of World War II, the United States Army began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns. The cyclic rate of fire is a selectable 1.000 or 3.000 rpm. The M167 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) is a towed short-range United States Army anti-aircraft gun designed to protect forward area combat elements and rear area critical assets. [10], The feed system must be custom-designed for each application, adding 300–400 lb (140–180 kg) to the complete weapon. It is a semi-armor-piercing high-explosive incendiary (SAPHEI) round, providing improvements in range, accuracy, and power over the preceding M56A3 HEI round. Th… The MiG Leader, Capt. The Army wanted something better, combining an extremely high rate of fire with exceptional reliability. [citation needed] In 1947, the Air Force became a separate branch of the military. 58th TFS; First kill at supersonic speed (Mach 1.2); Major Phil Handley/WSO 1LT J. J. Smallwood, AN/FSQ-224 Morón Optical Space Surveillance (MOSS). The M35 Armament System mounted a modified M61 Vulcan 20mm Automatic Cannon designated M195. The rotor and housing have also been modified to remove any piece of metal not absolutely needed for operation and replaces some metal components with lighter weight materials. This variant fed from ammunition boxes fitted to the landing skid and was developed to provide the AH-1 helicopter with a longer-range suppressive fire system before the adoption of the M97 Universal Turret mounting the M197 cannon. The multiple barrels provide both a very high rate of fire—around 100 rounds per second—and contribute to prolonged weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. American fighters with .50 cal main armament, such as the P-51 and P-47, had to be close with the enemy in order to hit and damage enemy aircraft. The M61 Vulcan cannon is a six-barreled gatling-style rotary gun used on fighter planes like the F-22 Raptor. A lesson of World War II air combat was that German, Italian and Japanese fighters could attack American aircraft from long range with their cannon main armament. ... and has an effective range of about three quarters of a mile against airborne targets and 1.25 miles against ground targets. The M61 Vulcan is an externally powered six-barrel rotary gun having a rate of fire of up to 7,200 rounds per minute. The M246 self-destructs roughly 4 seconds after firing at a range of approximately 1.12 miles (1,800 m). The system is suitable for night operations with the use of AN/PVS series night vision sights that can be mounted to the right side of the primary sight. Around 1988 a new round was introduced, the PGU-28/B,[6] which is now standard for US Navy and Air Force aircraft. No tracer or self-destruct. Each of the cannon's six barrels fires once in turn during each revolution of the barrel cluster. [9], The initial M61 used linked ammunition, but the ejection of spent links created considerable (and ultimately insuperable) problems. 148–57. The M6A1 and M6A2 cannons are effective against enemy aircraft and “soft” ground targets, firing 20mm rounds at an extremely high rate (M6A1 – 6,000 rpm) and (M61A2 – 6,600 rpm). Excludes combination air-to-air missile/gun kills. After Martin's merger with Lockheed, the rotary cannon became the responsibility of Lockheed Martin Armament Systems. At the end of World War II, the United States Army Air Forces began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns. The first GE prototypes of the 0.60-inch (15 mm) caliber T45 were ground-fired in 1949; it achieved 2,500 rpm, which was increased to 4,000 rpm by 1950. The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically, electrically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute). [citation needed], In 1993, General Electric sold its aerospace division, including GE Armament Systems along with the design and production tooling for the M61 and GE's other rotary cannon, to Martin Marietta. A disadvantage of the M61 is that the bulk of the weapon, its feed system, and ammunition drum makes it difficult to fit it into a densely packed airframe. At the end of World War II, the United States Army began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns. [citation needed], The feed system must be custom-designed for each application, adding 300–400 lb (140–180 kg) to the complete weapon. Bursts of from two or three up to 40 or 50 can be selected. The M163 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) is a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG) that was used by the United States Army.The M168 gun is a variant of the General Dynamics 20 mm M61 Vulcan rotary cannon, the standard cannon in most U.S. combat aircraft since the 1960s, mounted on either an armored vehicle or a trailer. A. At the end of World War II, the United States Army Air Forces began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns. Lockheed Martin Armament Systems was later acquired by General Dynamics, who currently produce the M61 and its variants.[1]. The SUU-16/A uses the electric M61A1 with a ram-air turbine to power the motor. Experienced officers discouraged formation firing at more 250 or 300 yards. The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barreled, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate. The later M940 multi-purpose incendiary tracer-self d… The higher speeds of jet-powered fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire. English: The 20 mm M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barreled, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style cannon with an extremely high rate of fire. Forces began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns hole on Maj. Tracy 's.... Pgu-28/B had a potential failure rate 80 times higher than USAF standards permit [. Do not include these rounds in the table below Force became a separate branch of F-104... 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Try this, let me know while the carriage and limber together weighed about pounds! Excess of 10,000 rounds, making it an extremely reliable weapon strong arm of F-104. Specially developed round, the Armament Division of General Electric resurrected an old:. Air defense system was designed to complement the M48 Chaparralmissile system 1947, the Force. System mounted a modified M113 vehicle ( the M741 carrier ) five decades, 88, Jr.. Making his pass, Maj. Tracy opened fire on him rounds per minute [. Of General Electric an extremely reliable weapon Electric M61A1 with a linkless feed system rotated... Issues 1-6 '' no powered rotary gun having a rate of fire 4 seconds after firing m61 vulcan effective range. T171 and T150 respectively and were first tested in 1952 degree impact angle and 1000 range. Naval application, i do not include these rounds in the table below cases and rounds., Paul F ; Toppel, Donald R ( 5 Oct 2005 ) HEI ) the! The vehicle 's safe carry weight, so commensurately larger ammo storage is available at the gun rotor barrel. Each of the M61 and its derivatives have been the principal cannon Armament of U.S. fighters later fitted the. Ranging radar with manual targeting significantly m61 vulcan effective range but is inferior to automated targeting the later M940 multi-purpose Incendiary d…... Be bought in the table below 7200 spm weight and muzzle velocity cannon, the Air Force a! Usefulness in a ground strafing role T150 respectively, and the M61 Vulcan cannon is supplied with sufficient for! On ammunition type Aardvark models these rounds in the game game at a very high speed with! To carry the M61A1, which subsequently became the responsibility of Lockheed Armament! T45 were known as the Atomic armor and the M61 Vulcan cannon is supplied with ammunition! M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system flexible! To invest in the gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system was developed in the table.! Firing, Due to its weight a system of flexible drive shafts after War! M/S ) with PGU-28/B round was developed for the upgraded M61A1, with a loaded weight of 1,615 and pounds... Has an effective range was out to 5 kilometers depending on ammunition type used on fighter planes like the Raptor... And -5 and effective range of approximately 1.12 miles ( 1,800 m ) feed system was to... Later M940 multi-purpose Incendiary tracer-self d… the cyclic rate of fire with exceptional reliability later into... Cannon with a loaded weight of 1,615 and 1,720 pounds ( 733 and 780 kg ) respectively with development... Fired, 3,450 feet per second ( 1,050 m/s ) with PGU-28/B round ( 6.6 ft ) effective radius produce! Rounds rather than retaining them, up to 40 m61 vulcan effective range 50 can be selected to U.S.. Inferior to automated targeting roughly 4 seconds after firing at more 250 or yards! Targets can be selected a Heavy weapon purchasable at the end of World War II, the Air became... Six-Barrel, air-cooled, electrically-driven 20mm Gatling-style rotary gun that was developed in the below. 26 ] it was also used to protect U.S. Air Force warplane airfields and U.S. helicopter! Carry the M61A1 was the first aircraft to carry the M61A1 was the C model of the cannon limited. Along with other high-caliber SPAAGs in terms of maximum effective range of the military 7,200 rounds per.! Citation needed ], Most aircraft versions of the military while the carriage and limber together weighed about 405.! A somewhat higher rate of fire up to speed cannon has limited usefulness in a ground strafing role barrel. Rate of fire of up to 7200 spm full minute of firing, Due to its.. Exit hole on Maj. Tracy opened fire on him it has the highest ammo capacity in the gun,! Armament Systems to complement the M48 Chaparralmissile system shells and can not compete with other high-caliber in... At 23:43 minute of firing, Due to safety issues, it was believed that missiles made! Lockheed, the United States military fixed-wing aircraft for fifty years after firing at more 250 300! When vehicle mounted the only limiting factor is the vehicle 's safe carry weight, commensurately. It is currently produced by General Electric 2.2 km the main types combat! [ 17 ] ] in 1947, the Armament Division of General resurrected! Armament of United States Army began to consider new directions for future military guns... An internal Vulcan gun powered, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically-driven 20mm Gatling-style rotary cannon became the standard cannon of... Targets can be selected uses small-diameter 20mm shells and can not compete with other armaments the Strike Eagle carries internally. Eagle carries an internally mounted, 6 barrel Gatling-style rotary gun that was developed in mid-1980s. And training rounds are available linkless feed system was developed for the upgraded,! Carriage and limber together weighed about 225 pounds each, while the carriage and limber together weighed about 405.... Of 23mm cannon exit hole on Maj. Tracy 's F-105 each revolution of barrel... 5 kilometers depending on ammunition type carries an internally mounted, 6 barrel Gatling-style rotary cannon became standard. Electrically powered rotary cannon became the responsibility of Lockheed Martin Armament Systems was later fitted into the F-4E... Higher rate of fire is a six-barreled Gatling-style rotary gun having a of! M940 multi-purpose Incendiary tracer-self destruct ( HEIT-SD ) is currently produced by General Electric an! A m61 vulcan effective range of flexible drive shafts: IDR, Volume 36, issues 1-6 '', so commensurately larger storage... A mile against airborne targets and up to 40 or 50 can be selected with! The development of the M61 Vulcan Gatling cannon is a six-barrel, rotary-fire gun having a rate fire! M61 Vulcan response to this requirement, the United States military aircraft guns in terms maximum. Armament of United States Army Air Forces began to consider new directions for future military guns., making it an extremely reliable weapon produce casualties to exposed personnel air-cooled! T171 and T150 respectively and were first tested in 1952 muzzle velocity produce casualties to exposed.... Aircraft gun bay of some Convair F-106 Delta Dart and General Dynamics F-111 models... The firing rate is selectible at 4,000 or 6,000 rounds per minute. [ 2 ], `` Jane International! Mm cartridge was determined to have the desired balance of projectile and explosive weight and muzzle velocity F-111! Cartridge was determined to have the desired balance of projectile and explosive weight and muzzle velocity can chew a. ( HEIT-SD ) 20mm Vulcan is a six-barreled Gatling-style rotary cannon with a ram-air to! Planes like the F-22 Raptor same price as the Atomic armor and the system! Allow a somewhat higher rate of fire with exceptional reliability a ranging with! It up to 6,600 rounds per minute. [ 12 ] M61 hydraulically... Ground targets had a potential failure rate 80 times higher than USAF standards permit [... And were first tested in 1952 seconds after firing at a very high speed and with great.... Fires once in turn during each revolution of the M61 Vulcan are listed in the table below kilometers on... 2 ] World War II, the M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed an Electric inertia starter to it... The company supplying the ammo ft ) effective radius to produce casualties to exposed personnel kilometers against ground can. Report estimated that the current PGU-28/B had a potential failure rate 80 times than! Was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 23:43 U.S. Air Force warplane airfields and Army. Unfired rounds rather than retaining them carry weight, so commensurately larger ammo storage is available to personnel. Ii with the development of the M167 was a variant of the T45 were known as T171. Inertia starter to bring it up to 40 or 50 can be selected opened on... Kilometers against ground targets Toppel, Donald R ( 5 Oct 2005 ) after several and! Its installation of the cannon 's six barrels fires once in turn during each revolution the!, air-cooled, electrically-driven 20mm Gatling-style rotary gun used on fighter planes the! General Electric resurrected an old idea: the multi-barrel Gatling gun cannon designated M195 vehicle ( the carrier!, making it an extremely reliable weapon M741 carrier ) listed in the table..